Last week ARM Ltd. and its licensees Freescale, Samsung, ST-Ericsson and TI, along with IBM, launched Linaro, a new organization to “foster innovation in the Linux® community through a common foundation of tools and software”.
My first reaction to the Linaro announcement was “O Joy, another Linux knitting circle”. But I am happy to say that Linaro appears to be what the industry really needs – the glue between silicon and software (my apologies to fans of Linaro stallions). Instead of creating standards or aggregating yet another embedded Linux distribution, Linaro has the stated goal of enabling existing (and new) software to run on actual silicon in the marketplace.
Deliverables of such an effort include
- device drivers
- board support packages (configurations)
- Linux kernel patches
- tools to support integration of these and other contributions
Let’s take a stroll down .org memory lane to compare Linaro’s goals to the aspirations and accomplishments of other initiatives, past and present:
Embedded/Mobile Linux .org Roll Call
OSDL Mobile Linux Initiative – MLI put together requirements for a mobile Linux-based platform as a de facto soft standard (as OSDL did with Carrier Grade Linux). Unlike CGL, MLI members were disappointed by the lack of actual software deliverables (that is, participants played chicken with contributions). MLI did serve to help popularize Linux as a foundation of mobile telephony.
CELF – the Consumer Electronics Linux Forum worked to create standards for Linux in a range of consumer electronics, including mobile telephony; these efforts were very skewed toward particular member implementations and did not survive industry scrutiny. CELF also instigated real implementation by funding kernel contributions by maintainers (e.g., for flash and power management) and today survives as a sponsor of Embedded Linux Conferences.
LiPS – the Linux Phone Standards Forum had the explicit goal of creating Linux-based standards for mobile terminal devices. Led by FT/Orange, ACCESS and VirtualLogix, they published several generations of specifications and were in the process of launching an open source TAPI project when the organization was absorbed by LiMo in 2008.
LiMo – the LiMo Foundation strives create the “first truly open, hardware-independent, Linux-based operating system for mobile device”, realized as a distribution shared by its members and deployed in member-built handsets. Despite these lofty goals, LiMo is hampered by a highly stratified and expensive membership structure, tortuous IPR with limited out-licensing, slow-to-market specifications, and most importantly incomplete validation suites and an MIA SDK. While LiMo claims dozens of phones as compliant, the basis is a very rudimentary specification, with little or no visibility to applications developers (cp. Android).
Linux Foundation / MeeGo – In 2007, the Linux Foundation was born out of the merger of Free Standards Group (home of the Linux Standards Base) and OSDL. They have been very successful in continuing work on LSD (fighting fragmentation) and in sponsoring a range of kernel engineering and other development activities. They recently announced their acceptance of hosting MeeGo, the result of merging Nokia’s Maemo tablet platform with Intel’s netbook/MID Moblin project. MeeGo targets a range of embedded/mobile applications, including mobile handsets.
So, Linaro is NOT a standards body, not a distribution supplier and not a mere cheerleader, as far as I can tell. They seem to have a clear vision of what they want to do – enable Linux on real silicon.
To that end, they are not getting fancy, especially in terms of licensing. Unlike LiPS, LiMo and others, they have pledged to adhere to existing licensing regimes and not indulge in license proliferation (beyond the profligate OSI corpus). In particular, the Linaro IP Policy refreshingly stipulates
- respect for and adherence to upstream licenses
- commitment to use only existing, OSI-approved licenses
Like embarking on a second (or third) marriage, launching a new .org for embedded Linux represents the triumph of optimism over experience. Despite (or because of?) my personal involvement with several of the .orgs above, I believe that Linaro has achievable goals and the members and means to achieve them. In particular, Linaro sets its sites on providing and improving infrastructure, an area where open source and .orgs have classically excelled.
So, keep your eyes on Linaro. Not the horse, but much needed glue.